(b) Expenses. For purposes of this Agreement, the term expenses shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, all direct and indirect costs of any type or nature whatsoever (including, without limitation, all attorneys, witness, or other professional fees and related disbursements, and other out-of-pocket costs of whatever nature), actually and reasonably incurred by Indemnitee in connection with the investigation, defense or appeal of a proceeding or establishing or enforcing a right to indemnification under this Agreement, the Code or otherwise, and amounts paid in settlement by or on behalf of Indemnitee, but shall not include any judgments, fines or penalties actually levied against Indemnitee for such individuals violations of law. The term expenses shall also include reasonable compensation for time spent by Indemnitee for which he is not compensated by the Company or any subsidiary or third party (i) for any period during which Indemnitee is not an agent, in the employment of, or providing services for compensation to, the Company or any subsidiary; and (ii) if the rate of compensation and estimated time involved is approved by the directors of the Company who are not parties to any action with respect to which expenses are incurred, for Indemnitee while an agent of, employed by, or providing services for compensation to, the Company or any subsidiary.
(c) Proceedings. For purposes of this Agreement, the term proceeding shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, any threatened, pending, or completed action, suit, arbitration, alternate dispute resolution mechanism, investigation, inquiry, administrative hearing or any other actual, threatened or completed proceeding, whether brought in the right of the Company or otherwise and whether of a civil, criminal, administrative or investigative nature, and whether formal or informal in any case, in which Indemnitee was, is or will be involved as a party or otherwise by reason of: (i) the fact that Indemnitee is or was a director or officer of the Company; (ii) the fact that any action taken by Indemnitee or of any action on Indemnitees part while acting as director, officer, employee or agent of the Company; or (iii) the fact that Indemnitee is or was serving at the request of the Company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, and in any such case described above, whether or not serving in any such capacity at the time any liability or expense is incurred for which indemnification, reimbursement, or advancement of expenses may be provided under this Agreement.
(d) Subsidiary. For purposes of this Agreement, the term subsidiary means any corporation or limited liability company of which more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities or equity interests are owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company and one or more of its subsidiaries, and any other corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise of which Indemnitee is or was serving at the request of the Company as a director, officer, employee, agent or fiduciary.
(e) Independent Counsel. For purposes of this Agreement, the term independent counsel means a law firm, or a partner (or, if applicable, member) of such a law firm, that is experienced in matters of corporation law and neither presently is, nor in the past five (5) years has been, retained to represent: (i) the Company or Indemnitee in any matter material to either such party, or (ii) any other party to the proceeding giving rise to a claim for indemnification hereunder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the term independent counsel shall not include any person who, under the applicable standards of professional conduct then